If we had no winter, the spring would not be so pleasant; if we did not sometimes taste of adversity, prosperity would not be so welcome. Anne Bradstreet

And if men come unto me I will show unto them their weakness. I give unto men weakness that they may be humble; and my grace is sufficient for all men that humble themselves before me; for if they humble themselves before me, and have faith in me, then will I make weak things become strong unto them. Ether 12:27

Yea, all things which come of the earth, in the season therof, are made for the benefit and the use of man, both to please the eye and to gladden the heart; Yea, for food and for raiment, for taste and for smell, to strengthen the body and to enliven the soul. And it pleaseth God that he hath given all these things unto man; for unto this end were they made to be used, with judgment, not to excess, neither by extortion. D&C 59:18-20

Monday, May 26, 2008

Book of Mormon Geography: 2-Front Lamanite Invasion

The operations involved in retaking the Nephite cities and lands do not identify sites, but they are important for showing that my general placements work. The slide show below shows the 2-front Lamanite invasion of ZARAHEMLA, continues through the recapture of some cities and lands followed by the loss of Zarahemla and Nephihah, and concludes with the final expulsion of the Lamanites.

To recap, Moroni has retaken Mulek and Gid, along the east sea. Omner has probably also been retaken, as Mormon mentions that Moroni's next goal is to retake Morianton. Helaman has retaken Antiparah, Cumeni, Zeezrom, and Manti along the west sea. That leaves just Moroni, Lehi, and Morianton under Lamanite control.

The new threat is an internal one. King-men in Zarahemla take control of the government and Pahoran and the free-men flee from Zarahemla to Gideon. The king-men enter into an arrangement with the Lamanites, who invade Nephihah. Some of the invading force comes from Lamanites in Moroni and from the Lamanites who fled from Manti; the remainder is a new army from NEPHI. The Nephite refugees from Nephihah flee to Moroni's camp, which is most likely in Omner.

Moroni hears of these problems from Pahoran, leaves Lehi and Teancum to protect Omner, and marches with "a small number of his men" through portions of ZARAHEMLA towards Gideon, raising “the standard of liberty in whatsoever place he did enter, and gained whatsoever force he could in all his march towards the land of Gideon” (62:3-4). Thousands responded and joined Moroni’s ranks (Alma 62:5). He and Pahoran join forces and take the city of Zarahemla. Next they march towards Nephihah and "did pitch their tents in the plains of Nephihah, which is near the city of Nephihah" (Alma 62:18). They retake that city by infiltrating it at night (Alma 62:20-25). The surviving Lamanites fled to Moroni.

After Nephihah, they retake Lehi when the Lamanites flee at the sight of the approaching army. The Lamanites flee "from city to city until they were met by Lehi and Teancum" (Alma 62:31-32). Mormon does not specifically mention Morianton, but undoubtedly it was liberated at this time. Upon seeing Lehi and Teancum, the Lamanites flee towards Moroni, along the east seashore (Alma 62:32). All the Lamanites are now gathered in the land of Moroni, with their king Ammoron. Teancum’s assassination of Ammoron precipitates the final battle that defeats the Lamanite army and drives the survivors out of ZARAHEMLA.

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